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Thread: What style of Jujutsu?

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    Default What style of Jujutsu?

    To European Jujutsu researchers, especially my friend Johan Smits.

    What style of Jujutsu is taught to West European military personnels before and during WWII? I am trying to determine the style of Jujutsu that was taught to the troops of NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Administration), the KL and the KNIL.

    The reason I'm asking is because I found some references of Indonesians who received "Judo Jiu Jitsu" training from Dutch troops.

    Thank you in advance,

    Ben
    Ben Haryo (This guy has low IQ and uses a dialect which vaguely resembles Bad English).

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    Hi Ben,

    That is a difficult question. I do know that in Germany, France and the UK jujutsu courses where taught to the army before WWII. Those courses started before or during WWI probably.
    In Germany Erich Rahn taught jujutsu. He had learned jujutsu from several teachers, one of them was Higashi one of the authors of the complete Kano jiujitsu. This may have been Tsutsumi Hozan-ryu, I think I have read somewhere about this connection.
    In the UK, Tani and Uenishi come to mind - I am not sure which styles they trained in. In France (from memory) Taro Miyake, not sure which style.

    I am not aware of any structural training for the Dutch army in jujutsu. Most of the material I know of is from later date and is fashioned after American material.
    I did reserach in the library of 'Bronbeek' - a military resthome for the elderly but did not find a lot overthere.

    Andjin Nica is what they were called sometimes I think. Were they not mostly volunteers? It is my quess that they mostly trained in what was available for citizens. The KNIL must have been training in unarmed combat, the only thing I ever found was a photo of their 'sikap awas' with rifle and klewang.

    Some time ago Robert Stover send me some interesting material from his teacher who was taught jujutsu by someone in the Dutch army in Indonesia. It was named, believe it or not, Nakada jujutsu.

    I am still in the process of doing research on this.
    For now - best regards,

    Johan Smits

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    It's not the Netherlands East Indies, but according to an AP story that appeared in the Appleton, Wisconsin "Post-Crescent" on Nov. 4, 1922:

    "A German policeman has just finished giving instruction in Jiu-Jitsu, the Japanese method of self-protection, to guardians of the public order in Spain.

    "Herr Wozny, of the Berlin criminal police department, returned recently from the engagement, for a brief visit home. Having established a reputation in Berlin as a police instructor, especially in Jiu-Jitsu, Wozny's services were 'borrowed' by the Spanish authorities. His commission included the development of police Jiu-Jitsu teachers at Barcelona, and instruction looking toward the establishment of a Jiu-Jitsu squad in Madrid."

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    With so many Germanic references, I wonder, was there a concerted effort by the Third Reich to learn the wonderful Jiu-Jitsu art of their noble ally, Japan?

    Was the Fuhrer himself favored Jiu-Jitsu and personally encourage Aryan youth to practice it?
    Ben Haryo (This guy has low IQ and uses a dialect which vaguely resembles Bad English).

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    Actually, yes, there was significant pre-WWII German interest in judo. Kano was in Germany ca. 1890, and the Berlin police had jujutsu training by 1910. This wasn't just boasting, either --Nagaoka went to Berlin to teach judo to the German police in 1934. By the 1930s, other Germans were behind the move to get judo into the Olympics (Kano didn't care too much, one way or the other), and under the fascist regimes, the Japanese and the Hitler Youth had regular exchange programs. The Germans also helped the Japanese Olympic wrestling team, and a Berlin policeman named Lehmann was promoted to 4-dan while Trevor Leggett was at the Kodokan.

    Some notes from Japan Times (or Nippon Times, as it was known in those days).

    28 Feb 1938, 1. Twelve Japanese go to Germany and Italy to teach judo and kendo. They are all in their 20s and high graded. (They were named, but I didn't write the names in my notes.)

    30 Apr 1938, 3. The judo and kendo team gave a demonstration attended by Mussolini in Rome on 27 Apr; it was a 20-minute audience accompanied by Japanese ambassador. They were to leave for Florence the following day, thus concluding 8 days in Italy.

    10 Jul 1938, 3. Judo and kendo team that visited Italy and Germany due back in Tokyo Tuesday evening about 5:10 p.m.

    23 Jul 1938, 2. Military arts courses added to all school curricula; time devoted increased to two hours per week; teachers increased to 2-3 per school.

    18 Sep 1938, 5. The Hitler Youth visiting Japan watched an old budo exhibition between 2:30 and 3:40 p.m. on 15 Sep 1938. Jujutsu demo was Shin-no-Shindo (Fairbairn's style, BTW) given by Mrs. Takeyo Suzuki and Mrs. Kaneko Imai. Bojutsu of Katori-Shinto-Ryu demonstrators included Mrs. Kimiko Sugino. Other styles named -- shuriken jutsu, kusariguruma-jutsu, etc., so some obscure stuff here.

    8 Jul 1939, 3. After examining German calisthenics, Ministry of Education introduces new Japanese calisthenics.

    19 Nov 1940, 8. After spectators are injured, Welfare Ministry requests stricter supervision of grenade throwing in the public schools.

    7 Jan 1941, 8. Spiritual and military training added to sumo training.

    9 Jan 1941, 4. In Meiji, Japanese military sword was modeled after the German military saber. Found inadequate in Russia in 1904, it was remade "in the style of the broadsword used by the Japanese during the end of the Kamakura period." Again found inadequate in 1930s.

    21 Mar 1941, 8. Inauguration of the Japan Bayonet Fencing Association yesterday at Toyama Military Academy.

    27 Mar 1941, 8. Military training instituted in Japanese universities in 1924. It was optional, and only a few participated. So, in 1937, 2 hours per week became mandatory.

    9 Oct 1945, 3. Bayonet practice prohibited in Japanese public schools.

    22 Oct 1945, 2. SCAP directive dtd 24 Sep 1945. Police ordered to collect revolvers, rifles, and "privately owned swords, except those having particular value as objects of art… As regards swords considered to be objects of art, such distinction in this matter is approved…"

    ***

    Which brings us back to the Dutch. During WWII, there was, among other units, 10th Interallied Commando, with No. 2 (Dutch) Troop. They trained with the Royal Marine Commandos. Osprey has a book on the topic. ( http://www.ospreypublishing.com/titl...hp/title=S9991 ) Might be something here, too -- http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=002...E2.0.CO%3B2-K:

    Hot Intelligence in the Tropics: Dutch Intelligence Operations in the Netherlands East Indies during the Second World War
    Bob de Graaff
    Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 22, No. 4, Intelligence Services during the Second World War: Part 2 (Oct., 1987), pp. 563-584

    All that said? My guess is on Fairbairn method, that sort of stuff. Why? See 10th Interallied Commando, above. Bluming is probably the man to ask about this sort of thing, as he was in the Dutch Army during the Korean War, and I believe he met Raymond Westerling.

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    Ben,

    Now you mention it I think there is a reference in 'Mein Kampf' on jiujitsu.

    Jujutsu and maybe wrestling and boxing as well were probably seen as manly sports and useful as a basic training for young men.
    WWI had quite some medieval forms of fighting in the trenches, knives, knuckledusters, sharpened shovels were used since mounted bayonets proved cumbersome. Quite interesting - now.
    I have seen some material on military jujutsu from that period. Very - very basic but probably handy out there in the trenches.
    From later date I must have a small booklet on combat judo or jiujitsu (can't recall) by the late Dick Schilder (in Dutch/Bahasa Indonesia). He taught jujutsu and judo in Indonesia but I am not sure if he did so before WWII.



    Just now saw your post Joe - Raymond Westerling practiced jujutsu as a youth', don't know if he taught it in the military but he was quite a character. As a young man one of my teachers met him, told me he was a very scary guy.

    best,

    Johan Smits
    Last edited by johan smits; 21st March 2007 at 07:29.

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    Quote Originally Posted by johan smits
    Hi Ben,

    In Germany Erich Rahn taught jujutsu. He had learned jujutsu from several teachers, one of them was Higashi one of the authors of the complete Kano jiujitsu. This may have been Tsutsumi Hozan-ryu, I think I have read somewhere about this connection.


    Johan Smits

    My understanding from de Jong sensei was that Higashi was a Tsutsumi practitioner and a contempoary of his sensei the Saito's. Higashi followed Kano while Maesao Tsutsumi broke away from judo after helping with its development.

    de Jong had two copies of a book that was printed in German around 1905 that was either by Masaeo Tsutsumi and printed after his death or was about him and Tsutsumi Ju Jutsu. I only saw the books in the bookcase and de Jong mentioned them in passing. The interesting thing was it described the Tsutsumi belt colours, different from judo, around 1905.

    There has been no evidence, that we have found, that any Tsutsumi type techniques or training have survived in Germany from that time.

    de Jong sensei taught in The Netherlands during WWII and I recall him saying that there were a number of people already doing some forms of ju jutsu before he got there.
    Greg Palmer

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    Hi Greg,

    I have seen that book on some list (I will see if I can find it). Rahn himself published books on jujutsu and quite a lot of those techniques look like the techniques Higashi shows in the Kano jiujitsu.
    The techniques by Higashi could that be considered Tsutsumi ryu you think?
    I am doing some research at the moment to see if there has been any influence on Dutch teachers by Rahn. Which is likely - I am trying to find reasonable proof of that.

    Lately I have trying to find pupils of Jan de Jong here in Holland during WWII. Unfortunately without succes.
    I do know Jan de Jong taught at the school of Reinier Hulsker from Rotterdam and then later on left and taught jujutsu for himself.
    By then there were several teachers of jujutsu teaching in Holland already - originated probably from some four different lines independant of each other.

    best,

    Johan Smits

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    Quote Originally Posted by Joseph Svinth
    ..and I believe he met Raymond Westerling.
    Och.. Raymond the killer.. We still remember his "operations" on West Java and South Sulawesi. Lots of controversies there, but sufficient to say that many people lost their lives during his "adventures"

    Anyway, thank you for the info!
    Ben Haryo (This guy has low IQ and uses a dialect which vaguely resembles Bad English).

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    Quote Originally Posted by Joseph Svinth
    It's not the Netherlands East Indies, but according to an AP story that appeared in the Appleton, Wisconsin "Post-Crescent" on Nov. 4, 1922:
    Quote Originally Posted by john_lord_b3
    With so many Germanic references, I wonder, was there a concerted effort by the Third Reich to learn the wonderful Jiu-Jitsu art of their noble ally, Japan?
    Later yes, but not in that case of 1922. The NSDAP came into power in 1933. The "Third Reich" lasted from then until 1945.

    Quote Originally Posted by johan smits
    I have seen that book on some list (I will see if I can find it).
    It is this book:
    Tsutsumi, Masao, Higashi, Katsukuma: Jiu-Jitsu die große Kunst der Selbstverteidigung und vollendeten Körperausbildung. Berlin, 1906.

    Best regards,

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    Quote Originally Posted by Robert Reinberger
    It is this book:
    Tsutsumi, Masao, Higashi, Katsukuma: Jiu-Jitsu die große Kunst der Selbstverteidigung und vollendeten Körperausbildung. Berlin, 1906.

    Best regards,

    If you ever come across a spare copy of that book I would certainly like to buy it. The fact that I don't speak or read German is not a problem. Just to have a piece of the history of my style would be nice.
    Greg Palmer

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    Quote Originally Posted by Keikai
    If you ever come across a spare copy of that book I would certainly like to buy it. The fact that I don't speak or read German is not a problem. Just to have a piece of the history of my style would be nice.
    I'm afraid you would be disappointed. Published one year after the Hancock & Higashi's "Kano Jiu-Jitsu" this book doesn't prove any connection between Higashi Katsukuma or Tsutsumi Masao to Tsutsumi Hozan Ryu. On the contrary, it seems to be an indication that the equality of the name Tsutsumi, regarding Higashis teacher and the old school, could be coincidental. The techniques in this book (with some inconsistencies, of course) are much closer to Kodokan Judo than those in Higashis earlier book, and even a lot of well known designations for techniques are used. Therefore the book is more of a reference that Higashi (or at least his teacher Tsutsumi Masao) indeed must have had contact with Kodokan Judo ("Kano Jiu-Jitsu").

    Higashi writes, that the book was originally written by Prof. Tsutsumi "eight years ago, shortly before his death" (that would have been 1898). He and his "old friend Kasiwa" had helped their teacher composing it.

    Now comes another incosistency, when Higashi writes about the content, as in representing "the Kano-system":

    "It is the product of many years of research and concentrated studies of my master, Professor Tsutsumi, who invented and established this tricks and rules, because he found them alone to be correct.

    Well, in Japan there are in existence miscellaneous other systems of self-defense: Hoshino, Shinshoriu, Sekiguchi and Tsutsumi, but since the Kano-system has become the official Jiu-Jitsu of the government in the army, navy, police and at public schools, all the other systems came into use lesser and lesser."


    Some of the techniques shown in that book (I use the original spelling, as given in the book) are hiki-otoshi, o-uchigari, hizakuruma, makikomi, seoinage, koshinage, ko-uchikari, yokosutemi and mostly resemble the throws known from judo. Different shime waza are all called "Kubishime", arm- and leglocks "udeori" and "ashiori" respectively (that means "armbreak" and "legbreak").

    Regards,

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    Thank you for that Robert.

    de Jong sensei did say the book was written about the time of Tsutsumi's death and was more by Higashi. I suspect the later comment about the other styles become less popular may have been put in after Tsutsumi's death.

    I recall reading in the foreword, I think in an early edition of the Kodokan Judo book but I may well be wrong, that Tsutsumi and Hoshino basically doubled the number of techniques in the Judo syllubus. Whether this is true or not no one will ever be able to say for sure. de Jong sensei told us Tsutsumi moved away from judo because he could see his system disappearing and he felt it had much still to offer.

    The names of the techniques you mention are in the main exactly how we use them now. The terms "udeori" and "ashiori" are not used by us. Either Ude Kujiki or Ude Kudakiare both meaning arm breaking or smashing or crushing. Either way your arm is going to hurt.

    Does Higashi refer to his "master" in the text and of help to compose the book for "their teacher". If so it would seem to indicate that Higashi was a student of Tsutsumi. He may never have graded all the way through the system so moved to the Kano system. Remembering that it was originally a blending of many ju jutsu styles. The book "The Complete Kano Jiu-Jitsu" would indicate that it was more ju jutsu than judo at that stage.

    Once again thank you for the translation
    Greg Palmer

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    Hi to you all,

    I did find a reference giving the publishing date for the Higashi/Tsutsumi book as 1899. Can't find the site anymore (made a print of the text).

    best,

    Johan Smits
    Last edited by johan smits; 22nd March 2007 at 10:13.

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    One more thing. I think we should not forget that Kano was not the only one who was trying to formulate a more general style of jujutsu. Several jujutsuteachers were trying to do that.The Noguchi brothers are an example and there must have been more like them I am sure.
    From the books by the Noguchi's it becomes obvious that a lot of what we today recognize as names for judotechniques are identical. For instance makikomi, hizaguruma, etc still what they did was not Kodokan judo.

    What I am trying to say is that if the names and even if the techniques resemble those of Kodokan judo it does not have to mean it was Kodokan judo.

    best,

    Johan Smits

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